Materials Used

Agate is a semi­pel­lucid crys­tal­lized quartz, consisting of banded or with branching inclu­sions chal­cedony. Physical prop­er­ties of agate are in general those of quartz. Agate has irreg­ular, some­times circular bands of color and often replaces fossil wood. Many fossils are agatized mate­rial where the orig­inal organic substance has been replaced by agate while retaining the orig­inal struc­ture. Agates are iden­tical in chem­ical struc­ture to jasper, flint, chert, blood­stone, and tiger-eye, and are often found in asso­ci­a­tion with opal. The colorful, banded rocks are used as a semi­precious gemstone and for making mortars and pestles. One will often see these in beads, agate pendants and neck­laces. Agate comes in most colors. Agates range from trans­parent to opaque in a variety of beau­tiful colors. It presents various tints in the same spec­imen.

Aquamarine is pale greenish blue or bluish green variety of beryl. Beryl is a mineral composed of beryl­lium aluminum sili­cate, a commer­cial source of beryl­lium. It has long been of interest because several vari­eties are valued as gemstones. These are aqua­ma­rine, emerald and heliodor. Aquamarine is the most common variety of gem beryl, it occurs in pegmatite, in which it forms much larger and clearer crys­tals than emerald.

Amethyst is the most valu­able trans­parent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz that is valued as a semi­precious gem for its violet color. It contains more iron oxide than any other variety of quartz, and experts believe that its color arises from its iron content. Other theo­ries attribute the color to contained manganese or hydrocarbons.Found in abun­dance, in its purest form, Amethyst is color­less. The finest quality Amethyst is medium to medium dark in tone, vivid in inten­sity, and purple, reddish purple to bluish purple in hue. Heating removes the color from amethyst or changes it to the yellow of citrine. Most commer­cial citrine is made in this manner.

Black Onyx The layers in these stones range from translu­cent to opaque for sardonyx. The stones vary in color, too. They may be white or gray, ranging to many colorful vari­eties. Sardonyx stones usually contain flat-banded, white and brownish-red bands. Onyx is a gemstone with alter­nating light and dark bands, which are colored in brown, red, black, white and grey.

Citrine is trans­parent, coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz. Citrine is a semi­precious gem that is valued for its yellow to brownish color and its resem­blance to the rarer topaz. Natural citrine is rare compared to amethyst or smoky quartz, both of which are often heated to turn their natural color into that of citrine. Pale yellow to a madeira orange in all of its glorious golden and yellow colors. The yellow color is from the pres­ence of iron, the darker the color — the higher the grade.

Cubic zirconia (CZ), a replace­ment for diamond was first used for the produc­tion of jewelry stones in 1976. On the hard­ness scale for stones, the genuine diamond is a 10 compared to a hard­ness ranging from 8.5 – 9 for CZ. CZ has a refrac­tive index (the ability to refract a ray of light into colors of red, orange, green, yellow, violet, and blue) of 2.15 – 2.18, compared to 2.42 for genuine diamond.

Diamond pave and micro pave settings, some­times also called bead settings are made by fitting diamonds into tapered holes in the metal. Pave settings use numerous small diamonds put together in a cluster with little or no metal showing. The stones are set almost level with the surface on the ring and some of the surrounding metal is raised to form beads which secure the stones. The name of the style come from French word pavé meaning paved like a cobble­stone road. In order to give the impres­sion of a contin­uous diamond surface.

Diamond baguette The cut of a baguette diamond gets its name from the shape of the cut. A baguette cut is rectan­gular, long and skinny. The cut was named for the simi­larly shaped baguette bread loaf.

Gold Pure gold is so soft it is rarely used in jewelry. Jewelers deal with various gold alloys, collec­tively called karat gold. Karat (K) tells the number of parts, by weight, of gold in 24 parts of alloy. The higher the percentage of pure gold, the higher the karat. Pure gold is 24K. 18K is 18 parts fine gold and 6 parts metal; 14K is 14 parts fine gold and 10 parts metal; and 10K is 10 parts fine gold and 14 parts other metal.

Hematite is an iron oxide and is gray, red or black in color. It has a crys­talline struc­ture and is one of the most abun­dant ores of iron. It is the birth­stone of people born in the month of March. The word hematite is derived from the Greek word “haimatites” which can be trans­lated as blood like. Hematite stone has a very shiny surface and it has a luster similar to that of a precious metal.

Lapis lazuli is a semi­precious stone valued for its deep blue color. The source of the pigment ultra­ma­rine, Lapis lazuli is not a mineral but a rock colored by lazu­rite. In addi­tion to the sodalite minerals in lapis lazuli, small amounts of white calcite and of pyrite crys­tals are usually present. Because lapis is a rock of varying compo­si­tion, its phys­ical prop­er­ties are vari­able.

Morganite, also known as Pink Beryl, Rose Beryl, Pink Emerald and Cesian Beryl, is a light pink to salmon-pink gem quality beryl. Morganite was first recog­nized as a distinct variety when spec­i­mens were first discov­ered in southern California in 1911. The pink beryl was named after J.P. Morgan, the American financier and gemstone collector.Gem-quality beryl coloured pink or rose-lilac by the pres­ence of cesium. It is often found with peach, orange, or pinkish yellow beryl (also called morganite); these colours trans­form to pink or purplish upon high-temper­a­ture heat treat­ment. Morganite crys­tals often show colour banding: blue near the base, through nearly colour­less in the centre, to peach or pink at the termi­na­tions. This colour change is prob­ably caused by differ­ences in the compo­si­tion of the solu­tion from which the crystal grew. Morganite is commonly found as squat, tabular crys­tals in lithia pegmatites, as in southern California and New England.

Quartz is the second-most-abun­dant mineral in the Earth’s conti­nental crust, after feldspar. There are many different vari­eties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Throughout the world, vari­eties of quartz have been since antiq­uity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hard­stone carv­ings.

Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color is usually consid­ered as due to trace amounts of tita­nium, iron, or manganese.

Smoky quartz is a gray, translu­cent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete trans­parency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque.

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by mass of silver and 7.5% by mass of other metals, usually copper. The ster­ling silver stan­dard has a minimum milles­imal fine­ness of 925.

Tiger eye is quartz that contains oriented fibres of croci­do­lite that have been replaced by silica. Tiger eye is displaying chatoy­ancy (a vertical lumi­nes­cent band like that of a cat’s eye). Tiger eye typi­cally has lustrous alter­nating yellow or brown bands. Tiger eye has a rich yellow and golden brown stripes, with a fine golden lustre when polished.

Topaz is an aluminum fluo­rite sili­cate containing fluo­rine. It is one of the few gem minerals which, under suit­able condi­tions, grow into enor­mous crys­tals. Topaz typi­cally occurs in cavi­ties in rhyo­lites and granite, in pegmatite dikes, and in high-temper­a­ture veins with cassi­terite and tour­ma­line. The stone is trans­parent with a vitreous luster. A light yellow, brown and pink variety of topaz are valued as a gemstone. The pure crys­tals of topaz used a great deal in jewelry.

Tourmaline is borosil­i­cate mineral of complex and vari­able compo­si­tion. Tourmaline is very abun­dant and has the best-devel­oped crys­tals in pegmatites and in meta­mor­phosed lime­stones in contact with granitic magmas. The colored vari­eties, when trans­parent and free from flaws, are cut as gems. Transparent crys­tals of tour­ma­line are dichroic — the depth of color varies as the crystal is turned in the light. Another pecu­liarity of tour­ma­line is that crystal when heated acquires an elec­tric charge and attracts small objects such as hair or small pieces of paper. Rubbing crystal imparts a similar charge. Tourmaline comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear. Green is from iron, chromium and vana­dium, pink from manganese. Some crys­tals are pink at one end and green at the other.